The sugar contained in the food that we eat is added to the blood when the food is digested. Sugar is contained in most of our foods, especially in flour and rice made items and in sweet dishes. The pancreas in our body senses the amount of sugar obtained from food and secretes Insulin accordingly. Insulin is a hormone without which sugar cannot enter into the cells of the body. In simple words we can say that Insulin is a key & without this key the locks of cells cannot be opened and sugar from blood cannot enter into the cells. In this way the sugar accumulates in the blood which is known as disease of diabetes.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
The symptoms of diabetes include excessive thirst, blur vision, weight loss, excessive hunger, tiredness and increase in urination. Increase in urination is a natural phenomenon to decrease the level of sugar in the blood. If sugar is positive in the urine test it means the person is suffering from diabetes. The best way to be examined for sugar is to undergo a blood sugar test in the morning before breakfast (however, water can be drunk). If sugar level is below or equal to 110 mg/dl then the person is said to have no diabetes. If the sugar/glucose level is 110 – 125 mg/dl then undergo again for the test on the next and the falling day. Even then if the glucose level is above 110 mg/dl and below 125 mg/dl then it is evaluated that the person is suffering from pre-diabetes. This person needs more attention to avoid diabetes.
On the other hand, the test evaluation of above 125 mg/dl shows diabetes. The above stated test is called “Fasting Plasma Glucose Test”. In addition, there is another blood sugar test known as “Random Plasma Glucose Test” which does not bound the person to don’t eat anything before the test. If in this test the level of glucose is above 200 mg/dl then there is diabetes.
There are two types of diabetes.
If the pancreas of a person is malfunctioned right from his birth, then it is known as Type-I diabetes.
If the pancreas of a person fails to secrete insulin properly later from his birth or amount of insulin is decreased in a person’s body due to obesity or the cells of the body resist the secreted insulin then this type of diabetes is known as Type-II diabetes.
Type-I diabetic patients are about 10% whereas Type-II diabetic patients are about 90%. There is also another type of diabetes which is known as Gestational Diabetes or Pregnancy Diabetes. This type of diabetes occurs in pregnant women which normally occurs from 24th to 28th week and vanishes after delivery. However, these women have chance to get Type-II diabetes so they should take precautionary measures to avoid diabetes. They should keep themselves safe from obesity, tension and rich sugar food instead they should adopt healthy life style and should do exercise.
Causes and Prevention:
There are numerous causes of diabetes i.e. genes, age, obesity, life styles, anxiety, viruses and various medicines & chemicals. If there is diabetes in a family. Then persons belonging to that family should take care to avoid diabetes. They should control their weight, avoid rich sugar foods, avoid anxiety and adopt a healthy life style and undergo sugar test regularly.
Type-I diabetic patients have no insulin present in their body so they have to take insulin after consulting their doctor. While Type-II diabetes patients can control their sugar level by keeping themselves away from rich sugar foods, anxiety, obesity and by doing walk and exercise regularly. If still sugar is not controlled then take medicines. These medicines help pancreas to make insulin and direct liver to release glucose slowly. If the glucose level is not controlled even from medicines then insulin injection is required. Insulin has three main kinds i.e. Fast acting, Moderately acting and Slow acting. Which insulin, in what amount and at what time should be used can be asked to the physician.
Carelessness about diabetes can increase intensity of the disease. Most of the people don’t take much care about diabetes. Most of the people tell their physician that they are suffering from diabetes for many years but they don’t have any special problem. This behavior is extremely dangerous. Ever if anyone have diabetes then it must have negative effects. For this everyone should must undergo blood sugar test at least once a year.
If diabetes is not controlled then it may lead to many other diseases. Due to continuous sugar flow in the blood can damage nerves and can lead to high blood pressure. Then due to high blood pressure and high sugar can ultimately lead to heart diseases. It can also lead to blur vision which may lead to complete blindness. Due to passage of high glucose blood from the kidneys can damage the vessels of the kidneys and ultimately leads to renal failure. Among the renal failure patients about 44% are those who have diabetes.
Sensitivity in different body parts is decreased in diabetic patients. Mostly feet get wounds and due to decreased sensitivity the patient could not even notice that he got wounds. Wounds do not heal sharply and if wounds get worse then sometimes feet or even legs are to be cut down to avoid spread of the wound. Diabetic patients have also problems of skin and teeth.
In simple words, diabetes is called mother of diseases. Complete information about diabetes is necessary and its control is important as it can lead to many other losses. It is advised to get knowledge about diabetes and protect yourself from diabetes and many other diseases originate from diabetes.