The peritoneum is the serous membrane related to the viscera of the abdominal cavity. It is divided into two layers: parietal and visceral
The parietal layer lines the body wall and covers the retroperitoneal organs on one surface. Parietal peritoneum is very sensitive to somatic pain and is innervated by the lower intercostal nerves and the ilioinguinal and the iliohypogastric nerves of the lumbar plexus.
The visceral layer encloses the surfaces of the intraperitoneal organs. The visceral peritoneum usually forms double-layered peritoneal membranes (mesenteries) that suspend parts of the GI tract from the body wall. The mesenteries allow for the passage of vessels, nerves and lymphatics to reach the GI tract.
Retroperitoneal organs can be remembered by the mnemonic “SAD PUCKER” which stands for:
S Supra renal gland
A Aorta & IVC
D Duodenum (except first part)
P Pancreas (except tail)
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